18.2 Acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-Para-Aminophenol, APAP, Paracetamol)............................................................... 271, 18.2.1 Incidence................................................................... 271, 18.2.2 Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology................. 272, 18.2.3 Clinical Use............................................................... 272, 18.2.4 Metabolism and Mechanism of Toxicity................... 272, 18.2.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 274, 18.2.6 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose................. 274, 18.3 Salicylates and Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASPIRIN, ASA).......... 276, 18.3.1 Incidence and Clinical Use....................................... 276, 18.3.2 Toxicokinetics...........................................................277, 18.3.3 Mechanism of Toxicity..............................................277, 18.3.4 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 278, 18.3.5 Clinical Management of Toxicity.............................. 279, 18.4 Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (NSAIDS)............. 281, 18.4.1 History and Description............................................ 281, 18.4.2 Classification, Pharmacology, and Clinical Use.......282, 18.4.3 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity....................282, 18.4.4 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose.................282, 18.5 Methods of Detection.............................................................284, References.........................................................................................284, Suggested Readings...........................................................................284, Review Articles.................................................................................285, Chapter 19 Anabolic–Androgenic Steroids.........................................................287, 19.1 The Endocrine System...........................................................287, 19.2 Neuroendocrine Physiology...................................................287, 19.2.1 Description................................................................287, 19.3 Anabolic–Androgenic Steroids (AAS)...................................288, 19.3.1 Definition and Incidence...........................................288, 19.3.2 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................289, 19.3.3 Adverse reactions......................................................289, 19.3.4 Addiction and Withdrawal Syndrome.......................293, 19.3.5 Treatment of the Consequences of Chronic, Steroid Use................................................................293, 19.4 Estrogen and Progestins.........................................................293, 19.4.1 Physiology.................................................................293, 19.4.2 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................294, 19.4.3 Clinical Toxicity of Prolonged Estrogen and/or, Progestin Administration..........................................294, References.........................................................................................297, Suggested Readings...........................................................................297, Review Articles.................................................................................297, Chapter 20 Cardiovascular Toxicology................................................................299, 20.1 Epidemiology..........................................................................299, 20.2 Cardiovascular (CV) Physiology............................................299, 20.2.1 CV Functions.............................................................299, 20.2.2 Cardiac Circulation...................................................300, 20.2.3 Electrophysiology......................................................300, 20.2.4 The Conducting System............................................ 301, 20.2.5 Electrocardiography..................................................302, 20.3 Digitalis Glycosides................................................................303, 20.3.1 Medicinal Chemistry.................................................303, 20.3.2 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................304, 20.3.3 Toxicokinetics...........................................................304, 20.3.4 Clinical Manifestations of Toxicity...........................305, 20.3.5 Mechanisms of Toxicity............................................305, 20.3.6 Clinical Management of Intoxication........................306, 20.3.7 Methods of Detection................................................307, 20.4 Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists..................................307, 20.4.1 β-Adrenergic Receptor System..................................307, 20.4.2 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................307, 20.4.3 Clinical Manifestations of Toxicity...........................308, 20.4.4 Clinical Management of Intoxication........................308, 20.5 Calcium Channel Antagonists (Ca2+ Channel Blockers)........309, 20.5.1 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................309, 20.5.2 Clinical Manifestations of Toxicity........................... 310, 20.5.3 Clinical Management of Intoxication........................ 310, 20.6 Other CV Drugs..................................................................... 310, 20.6.1 Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE), Inhibitors................................................................... 311, 20.6.2 Direct Vasodilators.................................................... 312, 20.6.3 Antiarrhythmic Drugs............................................... 313, References......................................................................................... 314, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 314, Review Articles................................................................................. 315, Chapter 21 Antineoplastic Agents....................................................................... 317, 21.1 Description............................................................................. 317, 21.2 Review of the Cell Cycle........................................................ 317, 21.3 Antimetabolites...................................................................... 318, 21.3.1 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................ 318, 21.3.2 Acute Toxicity........................................................... 319, 21.3.3 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose................. 319, 21.4 Alkylating Agents................................................................... 320, 21.4.1 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................ 320, 21.4.2 Acute Toxicity........................................................... 320, 21.4.3 Clinical Management of ADRs................................. 321, 21.5 Miscellaneous Chemotherapeutic Drugs............................... 321, 21.5.1 Natural Products........................................................ 321, 21.5.2 Hormones and Antagonists....................................... 323, 21.5.3 Platinum Coordination Complexes...........................324, 21.5.4 Substituted Urea........................................................324, References......................................................................................... 325, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 325, Review Articles................................................................................. 325, Chapter 22 Vitamins............................................................................................ 329, 22.1 Introduction............................................................................ 329, 22.2 Fat-Soluble Vitamins.............................................................. 331, 22.2.1 Vitamin A and Retinoic Acid Derivatives................ 331, 22.2.2 Vitamin D.................................................................. 332, 22.2.3 Vitamin E.................................................................. 335, 22.2.4 Vitamin K.................................................................. 335, 22.3 Water-Soluble Vitamins.......................................................... 336, 22.3.1 Thiamine................................................................... 336, 22.3.2 Riboflavin.................................................................. 336, 22.3.3 Niacin........................................................................ 336, 22.3.4 Folic Acid.................................................................. 338, 22.3.5 Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12)................................. 338, 22.3.6 Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)....................................... 338, 22.3.7 Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)........................................... 339, 22.3.8 Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)................................. 339, References.........................................................................................340, Suggested Readings...........................................................................340, Review Articles.................................................................................340, Chapter 23 Herbal Remedies............................................................................... 343, 23.1 Introduction............................................................................ 343, 23.2 Nomenclature and Classification............................................344, 23.2.1 Nomenclature............................................................344, 23.2.2 Therapeutic Category................................................ 345, 23.3 Indications.............................................................................. 345, 23.4 Other Therapeutic and Toxicologic Information on, Herbal Products...................................................................... 345, References......................................................................................... 356, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 356, Review Articles................................................................................. 357, Section III Toxicity of Nontherapeutic Agents, Chapter 24 Alcohols and Aldehydes.................................................................... 361, 24.1 Ethanol.................................................................................... 361, 24.1.1 Incidence and Occurrence......................................... 361, 24.1.2 Chemical Characteristics.......................................... 361, 24.1.3 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 362, 24.1.4 Calculation of Blood Alcohol Concentrations, (BAC)........................................................................ 363, 24.1.5 Mechanisms of Toxicity............................................364, 24.1.6 Clinical Manifestations of Acute Toxicity................366, 24.1.7 Management of Acute Intoxication...........................368, 24.1.8 Clinical Manifestations of Chronic Toxicity.............368, 24.1.9 Management of Chronic Intoxication....................... 370, 24.1.10 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)................................. 371, 24.1.11 Tolerance, Dependence, and Withdrawal.................. 371, 24.1.12 Methods of Detection................................................ 372, 24.2 Methanol................................................................................. 373, 24.2.1 Incidence and Occurrence......................................... 373, 24.2.2 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 373, 24.2.3 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 373, 24.2.4 Clinical Manifestations of Acute Intoxication.......... 374, 24.2.5 Management of Acute Intoxication........................... 374, 24.3 Isopropanol............................................................................. 374, 24.3.1 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 375, 24.3.2 Mechanisms of Toxicity............................................ 375, 24.3.3 Clinical Manifestations of Acute Toxicity................ 375, 24.3.4 Management of Acute Intoxication........................... 375, 24.4 Formaldehyde......................................................................... 375, 24.4.1 Incidence and Occurrence......................................... 376, 24.4.2 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 376, 24.4.3 Mechanisms of Toxicity............................................ 377, 24.4.4 Clinical Manifestations of Acute Intoxication.......... 377, 24.4.5 Management of Acute Intoxication........................... 377, References......................................................................................... 377, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 377, Review Articles................................................................................. 378, Chapter 25 Gases................................................................................................. 381, 25.1 Introduction............................................................................ 381, 25.2 Pulmonary Irritants................................................................ 381, 25.3 Simple Asphyxiants................................................................ 382, 25.3.1 Introduction............................................................... 382, 25.3.2 Gaseous Agents......................................................... 382, 25.4 Toxic Products of Combustion (TCP).................................... 387, 25.4.1 Introduction............................................................... 387, 25.4.2 Clinical Toxicity........................................................ 387, 25.5 Lacrimating Agents (Tear Gas).............................................. 389, 25.5.1 Introduction............................................................... 389, 25.5.2 Chemical Agents....................................................... 389, 25.6 Chemical Asphyxiants............................................................ 389, 25.7 Carbon Monoxide (CO).......................................................... 389, 25.7.1 Incidence................................................................... 389, 25.7.2 Chemical Characteristics and Sources of Exposure.....391, 25.7.3 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 391, 25.7.4 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 391, 25.7.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 392, 25.7.6 Treatment of Acute Poisoning................................... 393, 25.8 Cyanide................................................................................... 394, 25.8.1 Chemical Characteristics, Occurrence, and Uses..... 394, 25.8.2 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 394, 25.8.3 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 394, 25.8.4 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 395, 25.8.5 Treatment of Acute Poisoning................................... 395, 25.9 Methods Of Detection............................................................397, References.........................................................................................397, Suggested Readings...........................................................................397, Review Articles................................................................................. 398, Chapter 26 Metals................................................................................................ 401, Anirudh J. Chintalapati and Frank A. Barile, 26.1 Introduction............................................................................ 401, 26.1.1 Background............................................................... 401, 26.1.2 Exposure and Applications....................................... 401, 26.1.3 Physiological Role of Metals.....................................402, 26.2 Chelation Therapy..................................................................402, 26.2.1 Description................................................................402, 26.2.2 Dimercaprol...............................................................404, 26.2.3 Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA)................404, 26.2.4 Penicillamine.............................................................405, 26.2.5 Deferoxamine............................................................406, 26.2.6 Succimer....................................................................406, 26.2.7 Unithiol......................................................................407, 26.3 Antimony................................................................................407, 26.3.1 Physical and Chemical Properties.............................407, 26.3.2 Occurrence and Uses.................................................407, 26.3.3 Mechanism of Toxicity..............................................408, 26.3.4 Toxicokinetics...........................................................408, 26.3.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Poisoning.................408, 26.3.6 Treatment of Acute Poisoning...................................408, 26.4 Arsenic (As)............................................................................409, 26.4.1 Physical and Chemical Properties.............................409, 26.4.2 Occurrence and Uses.................................................409, 26.4.3 Mechanisms of Toxicity............................................409, 26.4.4 Toxicokinetics...........................................................409, 26.4.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 410, 26.4.6 Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Toxicity................. 410, 26.4.7 Treatment of Acute Poisoning................................... 410, 26.4.8 Treatment of Chronic Poisoning............................... 411, 26.4.9 Carcinogenesis.......................................................... 411, 26.5 Asbestos.................................................................................. 411, 26.5.1 Physical and Chemical Properties............................. 411, 26.5.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 411, 26.5.3 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 412, 26.5.4 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 412, 26.5.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 412, 26.5.6 Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Toxicity................. 412, 26.5.7 Treatment of Acute Poisoning................................... 413, 26.5.8 Treatment of Chronic Poisoning............................... 413, 26.6 Cadmium................................................................................ 413, 26.6.1 Physical and Chemical Properties............................. 413, 26.6.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 413, 26.6.3 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 414, 26.6.4 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 414, 26.6.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 414, 26.6.6 Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Toxicity................. 415, 26.6.7 Treatment of Acute Poisoning................................... 415, 26.6.8 Treatment of Chronic Poisoning............................... 415, 26.7 Cobalt..................................................................................... 415, 26.7.1 Physical and Chemical Properties............................. 415, 26.7.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 415, 26.7.3 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 416, 26.7.4 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 416, 26.7.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 416, 26.7.6 Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Toxicity................. 416, 26.7.7 Treatment of Acute Poisoning................................... 417, 26.7.8 Treatment of Chronic Poisoning............................... 417, 26.8 Copper.................................................................................... 417, 26.8.1 Physical and Chemical Properties............................. 417, 26.8.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 417, 26.8.3 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 418, 26.8.4 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 418, 26.8.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 419, 26.8.6 Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Toxicity................. 419, 26.8.7 Treatment of Acute Poisoning................................... 419, 26.8.8 Treatment of Chronic Poisoning............................... 419, 26.9 Iron (Fe2+, Fe3+)....................................................................... 420, 26.9.1 Physical and Chemical Properties............................. 420, 26.9.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 420, 26.9.3 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 420, 26.9.4 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 421, 26.9.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 422, 26.9.6 Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Toxicity................. 422, 26.9.7 Treatment of Acute Poisoning................................... 422, 26.9.8 Treatment of Chronic Poisoning............................... 423, 26.9.9 Clinical Monitoring................................................... 423, 26.10 Lead........................................................................................ 423, 26.10.1 Physical and Chemical Properties............................. 423, 26.10.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 423, 26.10.3 Mechanism of Toxicity..............................................424, 26.10.4 Toxicokinetics...........................................................424, 26.10.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 426, 26.10.6 Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Toxicity................. 426, 26.10.7 Treatment of Acute Poisoning................................... 426, 26.10.8 Treatment of Chronic Poisoning............................... 427, 26.10.9 Clinical Monitoring................................................... 427, 26.11 Mercury (Hg).......................................................................... 427, 26.11.1 Physical and Chemical Properties............................. 427, 26.11.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 427, 26.11.3 Occupational and Environmental Exposure............. 429, 26.11.4 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 429, 26.11.5 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 429, 26.11.6 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity, (Inhalation and Ingestion)......................................... 430, 26.11.7 Signs and Symptoms of Subacute or Chronic, Poisoning................................................................... 431, 26.11.8 Clinical Management of Hg Poisoning..................... 431, 26.12 Selenium (Se).......................................................................... 431, 26.12.1 Physical and Chemical Properties............................. 431, 26.12.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 431, 26.12.3 Physiological Role..................................................... 432, 26.12.4 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 432, 26.12.5 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 432, 26.12.6 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 433, 26.12.7 Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Toxicity................. 433, 26.12.8 Clinical Management of Poisoning........................... 433, 26.13 Silver (Ag).............................................................................. 433, 26.13.1 Physical and Chemical Properties............................. 433, 26.13.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 433, 26.13.3 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 434, 26.13.4 Argyria...................................................................... 434, 26.14 Zinc (Zn)................................................................................. 434, 26.14.1 Physical and Chemical Properties............................. 434, 26.14.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 434, 26.14.3 Physiological Role..................................................... 435, 26.14.4 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 435, 26.14.5 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 435, 26.14.6 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 435, 26.14.7 Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Toxicity................. 436, 26.14.8 Clinical Management of Poisoning........................... 436, References......................................................................................... 436, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 436, Review Articles................................................................................. 437, Chapter 27 Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons............................................. 439, 27.1 Introduction............................................................................ 439, 27.1.1 Aliphatic and Alicyclic Hydrocarbons...................... 439, 27.1.2 Aromatic HCs............................................................ 439, 27.1.3 General Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity...... 439, 27.2 Petroleum Distillates.............................................................. 441, 27.2.1 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 441, 27.2.2 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 441, 27.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons......................................................... 441, 27.3.1 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 441, 27.3.2 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 441, 27.4 Halogenated Hydrocarbons....................................................443, 27.4.1 Occurrence and Uses.................................................443, 27.4.2 Mechanism of Toxicity..............................................444, 27.5 Methods Of Detection............................................................448, References.........................................................................................448, Suggested Readings...........................................................................448, Review Articles.................................................................................449, Chapter 28 Insecticides........................................................................................ 451, 28.1 Introduction............................................................................ 451, 28.2 Organophosphorus Compounds (Organophosphates, OP)..... 451, 28.2.1 Chemical Characteristics.......................................... 451, 28.2.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 452, 28.2.3 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 453, 28.2.4 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 454, 28.2.5 Clinical Management of Acute Poisoning................ 455, 28.3 Carbamates............................................................................. 456, 28.3.1 Chemical Characteristics, Occurrence, and Uses..... 456, 28.3.2 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 456, 28.3.3 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 456, 28.3.4 Clinical Management of Acute Poisoning................ 456, 28.4 Organochlorine (OC) Insecticides.......................................... 456, 28.4.1 Chemical Characteristics.......................................... 456, 28.4.2 Occurrence and Uses................................................. 458, 28.4.3 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 458, 28.4.4 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 458, 28.4.5 Clinical Management of Acute Poisoning................460, 28.5 Miscellaneous Insecticides..................................................... 461, 28.5.1 Pyrethroid Esters....................................................... 461, 28.5.2 Nicotine..................................................................... 461, 28.5.3 Boric Acid (H3BO3)...................................................462, 28.5.4 Rotenone....................................................................462, 28.5.5 Diethyltoluamide (DEET).........................................463, 28.6 Methods of Detection.............................................................463, References.........................................................................................464, Suggested Readings...........................................................................464, Review Articles.................................................................................465, Chapter 29 Herbicides..........................................................................................467, 29.1 Introduction............................................................................ 467, 29.2 Chlorphenoxy Compounds..................................................... 467, 29.2.1 Chemical Characteristics.......................................... 467, 29.2.2 Occurrence and Uses.................................................469, 29.2.3 Signs and Symptoms and Mechanism of Acute, Toxicity......................................................................469, 29.2.4 Clinical Management of Acute Poisoning................ 470, 29.3 Bipyridyl Herbicides............................................................... 470, 29.3.1 Chemical Characteristics, Occurrence, and Uses..... 470, 29.3.2 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 470, 29.3.3 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 471, 29.3.4 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 472, 29.3.5 Clinical Management of Acute Poisoning................ 472, 29.4 Miscellaneous Herbicides....................................................... 473, 29.5 Methods of Detection............................................................. 473, References......................................................................................... 475, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 475, Review Articles................................................................................. 476, Chapter 30 Rodenticides...................................................................................... 477, 30.1 Introduction............................................................................ 477, 30.2 Anticoagulants........................................................................ 477, 30.2.1 Chemical Characteristics.......................................... 477, 30.2.2 Commercial and Clinical Use................................... 479, 30.2.3 Toxicokinetics...........................................................480, 30.2.4 Mechanism of Toxicity..............................................480, 30.2.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity....................480, 30.2.6 Clinical Management of Acute Poisoning................ 481, 30.3 Phosphorus (P)........................................................................482, 30.3.1 Chemical Characteristics, Occurrence, and Uses.....482, 30.3.2 Toxicokinetics...........................................................482, 30.3.3 Mechanism and Signs and Symptoms of Acute, Toxicity......................................................................482, 30.3.4 Clinical Management of Acute Poisoning................483, 30.4 Red Squill...............................................................................483, 30.4.1 Chemical Characteristics, Occurrence and Uses......483, 30.4.2 Mechanism and Signs and Symptoms of Acute, Toxicity......................................................................484, 30.4.3 Clinical Management of Acute Poisoning................484, 30.5 Metals: Thallium, Barium......................................................484, 30.5.1 Thallium (Tl).............................................................484, 30.5.2 Barium (Ba)...............................................................485, 30.6 Methods Of Detection............................................................485, References.........................................................................................486, Suggested readings............................................................................486, Review Articles.................................................................................487, Chapter 31 Chemical Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis......................................489, 31.1 Introduction............................................................................489, 31.2 Mechanisms Of Chemical Carcinogenesis............................. 491, 31.2.1 Metabolism................................................................ 491, 31.2.2 Chemistry.................................................................. 491, 31.2.3 Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species............ 491, 31.2.4 Mutagenesis...............................................................492, 31.2.5 DNA Repair...............................................................494, 31.2.6 Epigenetic Carcinogenesis........................................494, 31.3 Multistage Carcinogenesis......................................................494, 31.3.1 Tumor Initiation......................................................... 495, 31.3.2 Tumor Promotion...................................................... 495, 31.3.3 Tumor Progression....................................................497, 31.4 Carcinogenic Characteristics..................................................497, 31.4.1 Classification............................................................. 498, 31.4.2 Identification.............................................................. 498, 31.4.3 Carcinogenic Potential..............................................499, 31.4.4 Carcinogenic Risk Assessment.................................499, 31.4.5 Carcinogenic and Genotoxic Agents......................... 501, 31.5 Cancer Chemoprevention....................................................... 501, 31.5.1 General Considerations............................................. 501, 31.5.2 Cancer Chemopreventive Agents..............................502, 31.5.3 Mechanisms Underlying Cancer Chemoprevention...... 502, References.........................................................................................502, Suggested Readings...........................................................................502, Review Articles.................................................................................504, Chapter 32 Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity.......................................505, 32.1 Introduction............................................................................505, 32.2 History and Development.......................................................506, 32.3 Summary of Maternal–Fetal Physiology...............................506, 32.3.1 Definitions.................................................................506, 32.3.2 First Trimester...........................................................507, 32.3.3 Second and Third Trimesters....................................508, 32.4 Mechanisms of Developmental Toxicity................................508, 32.4.1 Susceptibility.............................................................508, 32.4.2 Dose–Response and Threshold.................................508, 32.5 Drugs Affecting Embryonic and Fetal Development.............509, 32.5.1 Classification.............................................................509, 32.5.2 Drug Classes.............................................................509, 32.6 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (Edcs)................................ 513, 32.6.1 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 514, 32.6.2 Effects of EDCs on Female Reproductive System.... 515, 32.6.3 Effects of EDCs on Male Reproductive System....... 518, 32.6.4 Management of EDC Exposure................................. 519, References......................................................................................... 519, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 519, Review Articles................................................................................. 520, Chapter 33 Radiation Toxicity............................................................................. 523, 33.1 Principles Of Radioactivity.................................................... 523, 33.2 Ionizing Radiation.................................................................. 524, 33.2.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation................... 524, 33.2.2 Sources...................................................................... 524, 33.2.3 Clinical Manifestations............................................. 525, 33.2.4 Nuclear Terrorism and Health Effects...................... 527, 33.3 Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation..................................................... 527, 33.3.1 Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation............... 527, 33.3.2 Sources...................................................................... 528, 33.3.3 Clinical Manifestations............................................. 528, 33.4 Nonionizing Radiation........................................................... 531, 33.4.1 Sources...................................................................... 531, 33.4.2 Biological Effects and Clinical Manifestations........ 531, References......................................................................................... 532, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 532, Review Articles................................................................................. 532, Chapter 34 Chemical and Biological Threats to Public Safety........................... 535, 34.1 Introduction............................................................................ 535, 34.2 Biological Pathogenic Toxins as Threats to Public Safety..... 536, 34.2.1 Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)..................................... 537, 34.2.2 Botulism.................................................................... 541, 34.2.3 Plague (Yersinia pestis)............................................. 541, 34.2.4 Brucellosis (Brucella suis)........................................ 542, 34.2.5 Salmonellosis (Salmonella species).......................... 543, 34.2.6 Typhoid Fever............................................................ 545, 34.2.7 Shigellosis (Shigella Species)....................................546, 34.2.8 Escherichia coli O157:H7.........................................546, 34.2.9 Cholera (Vibrio cholerae).......................................... 547, 34.2.10 Smallpox....................................................................548, 34.2.11 Tularemia (Francisella tularensis), Q Fever, (Coxiella burnetti), and Viral Hemorrhagic, Fevers (VHF)............................................................549, 34.3 Chemical Agents As Threats To Public Safety...................... 550, 34.3.1 Nerve Gases............................................................... 550, 34.3.2 Vesicants, Chemical Asphyxiants, and, Pulmonary Irritants................................................... 551, 34.3.3 Ricin (Ricinus communis)......................................... 551, References......................................................................................... 552, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 552, Review Articles................................................................................. 553, Index....................................................................................................................... 555, Frank A. Barile, PhD, is Professor in the Toxicology Division and past chairman, of the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John’s University College of, Dr. Barile received his BS in Pharmacy, MS in Pharmacology, and PhD in, Toxicology at St. John’s University. A concise yet detailed authoritative, fundamental text addressing the current principles of clinical toxicology encompasses the expertise in Department... Contains reviews and posters of the poisoned patients, practical aspects of clinical toxicology is practical... Toxicology encompasses the expertise in the care of the poisoned patients the second half the! Introduction to toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy and health professions students vitro Cytotoxicity program Impact Factor ( IF of!... Books ; Keep up to 90 % off 300 Scanner Internet Python. Are available in a reflowable EPUB format which allows you to resize text to suit you and enables other features. Looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.com dr. 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