It is unclear whether Sanskrit and Pali words beginning with /ɲ/ were borrowed directly with a /j/, or whether a /ɲ/ was re-introduced, followed by a second change /ɲ/ > /j/. In this contrastive analysis, English is dealt with as the instrumental language and Vietnamese is the target language. There are some questions arise: “How are the words denoting upper parts of human body used metaphorically in both English and Vietnamese?”, “How much are they similar?” and “How much do they differ from each other?”. For example, in English: “A decorative pattern round the mouth of the bag.” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 1995, p.760). Vietnamese has basically divided into three main dialects: North, Central, and South. Is Vietnamese language similar to Chinese? Oh, the fine night, we meet in happiness tonight! And then the human beings began comparing the surrounding things with their own body and finding common features in the process of cognition of the world. This suggests that /ɲ/ > /j/ in native words occurred in the pre-literary period. So metaphor here is dealt with as a means of creating and expanding meaning to depict other referents which are similar to the word’s primary referent. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Occasionally referred to as the "Central Thai people" in linguistics and anthropology to avoid confusion. This study is conducted with the aims of theoretical and practical. American Presbyterian mission press, 1900, Harald Haarmann Language in Ethnicity: A View of Basic Ecological Relations 1986- Page 165 "In Thailand, for instance, where the Chinese influence was strong until the Middle Ages, Chinese characters were abandoned in written Thai in the course of the thirteenth century. Look at the above once more. The long vowel dai ([dâːj]) is placed after the verb and conveys the idea that one has been given permission or one has the ability to do something. Hoa, Nguyen(2004).Understanding English Semantics.Vietnam National University, College of Foreign Language. 1999. Obviously, metaphor is related to simile and metonymy but it is quite distinguished from them. However, there is a question to be posed “why do people have to use such an implicit way to convey the idea?”. Firstly, the theoretical background of metaphors will be given talked about through the basic readings of related materials. The two languages are nothing alike. In the above table, there are some similar in both languages in the way that the words referring the ear are used to denote to the small and curved part on the side of a container such as jug and cup. The short vowel dai ([dâj]) conveys an opportunity has arisen and is placed before the verb. In general, there are three principle sorts of metaphors which are living, faded and dead metaphors. B.C.) We compare two unlike things together in two ways. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (1995, p.734), metaphor is defined as “the imaginative use of a word or a phrase to describe somebody/something as another object in order to show that they have the same qualities and as to make the description more forceful”. (พวกผม, phuak phom, [pʰûak pʰǒm], we, masculine; พวกเรา phuak rao, [pʰûak raw], emphasised we; พวกหมา phuak ma, (the) dogs). Metaphor and metonymy are two types of transference of meaning. Also, metaphors are varied from one language to another due to people’s life experience, world views or people’s cognition of the outside world and the language users’ culture. The letter ห, one of the two h letters, is also used to help write certain tones (described below). Moreover, English is the l… Spoken natively by an estimated 76 million people (as of 2009), it is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. However, 'go' is also common in Vietnamese. The major branches of the Mon-Khmer family are Vietnamese, Khmer (Cambodia), Muong (Mountainous provinces of northern Vietnam) and Mon (Mon State of Myanmar). 20th Sep 2017 Firstly, our eyes are round and small in shape, in two languages, the two words “eye” and “mắt” imply to the shape of a potato. [25] The table shows an example of both the phonemic tones and their phonetic realization, in the IPA. It is used in Vietnam throughout all levels of the educational system, including higher education, for all official and non-official communication, in the media, and in publishing. Thai descends from proto-Tai-Kadai, which has been hypothesized to originate in the Lower Yangtze valleys. However, the equivalents of the two words “mouth” and “miệng do not exist in both English and Vietnamese. It can be understood implicitly in the first example and in the second one, it can be understood explicitly. Thai exhibits serial verb constructions, where verbs are strung together. Likewise, metaphor can convey the imagination of the language users so it is clearly more powerful and effective in communication. This remains true for the older generation, but the high tone is changing to [334] among youngsters. Thus, the word "eat" can be กิน (kin; common), แดก (daek; vulgar), ยัด (yat; vulgar), บริโภค (boriphok; formal), รับประทาน (rapprathan; formal), ฉัน (chan; religious), or เสวย (sawoei; royal), as illustrated below: Thailand also uses the distinctive Thai six-hour clock in addition to the 24-hour clock. So the word “sunny” has positive value and it is exchanged to discuss the mood of people as in the following illustration. Cognitive linguistics and non-Indo-European languages. For example, the flower regularly symbolizes for the beauty. All Proto-Tai vowels were lengthened in open syllables, and low vowels were also lengthened in closed syllables. But now the word “capital” is not utilized literally as the head of the human body, however, it just means the capital of the country as in the sentence: “Paris is the capital of France”. The Thais adopted and modified the Khmer script to create their own writing system. Modern Thai largely preserved the original lengths and qualities, but lowered, Ayutthaya dialect (Standard Thai, Outer Bangkok), natively spoken in the vicinity of Bangkok such as, Thonburi dialect (also called Bangkok dialect), spoken in the. is my adoration and longing. In Thai, each syllable in a word is considered separate from the others, so combinations of consonants from adjacent syllables are never recognised as a cluster. In both countries, people all comprehend parts of their body well in shape, position, function, etc…and relate these features to features of things in the world to name them by utilizing the names of upper parts of the body. In this manner, any instances of metaphors relating to upper parts of human body in English will be recorded and analyzed first and after that they will be compared and contrasted with Vietnamese to discover the similarities and differences between the two languages. Metaphor also be defined as follows “an extension in the use of the word beyond its primary meaning to describe referents that bear similarities to the word’s primary referent”(Language-its structure and use,1994). 2008. Generally, there are some common and distinguished features in the metaphorical use of the words denoting the mouth between the English and Vietnamese. It is created and used by individuals. Of the consonant letters, excluding the disused ฃ and ฅ, six (ฉ ผ ฝ ห อ ฮ) cannot be used as a final and the other 36 are grouped as following. For purposes of determining tone, those marked with an asterisk are sometimes classified as long: Additionally, there are three triphthongs. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Metaphors relating to “ear” in English and “tai” in Vietnamese. Although some linguists classify these dialects as related but distinct languages, native speakers often identify them as regional variants or dialects of the "same" Thai language, or as "different kinds of Thai".[19]. Rhetorical Thai: used for public speaking. This study has provided a systematic and clear view on metaphors relating to upper parts of human body in English and Vietnamese. Thai is written in the Thai script, an abugida written from left to right. They are personified to possess the same names with the some upper parts of human body. หนู commonly means rat or mouse, though it also refers to small creatures in general. Another interesting point is that the world becomes bright and clear when we open our eyes and see and when the sun rises and opens on a day, the world is also sheeny. The above consonant mergers and tone splits account for the complex relationship between spelling and sound in modern Thai. They are not used in elegant (written) Thai. You would probably have an easy time learning cantonese which is official language of hong kong. English and Vietnamese, surprisingly, have many similarities. According to Li (1977[full citation needed]), however, many Thai dialects have only one such short–long pair (/a aː/), and in general it is difficult or impossible to find minimal short–long pairs in Thai that involve vowels other than /a/ and where both members have frequent correspondences throughout the Tai languages. So it was metaphorically used to refer to the most important city or town of a country which is usually the center of government. Secondly, the function of metaphors is to cognize or conceptualize things. Used in a question or a request, the particle ค่ะ (falling tone) is changed to a คะ (high tone). Study for free with our range of university lectures! 2549. For example, “Eye of the peacock’s tail” (Vocabulary, p.26), “Hook and eye of the dress” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 1995, p.410). Many words can be used in either function. For instance, the word “mouth” in English is used to denote to the open part of a cave or river, whereas the word “miệng” in Vietnamese is used to denote to the open part of an injury. In English and Vietnamese, when we see into a person’s eyes and the central position of the eyes when we see around, the words “eye” and “mắt” refer to the centre of the cyclone and wind blows. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Similarly, the word “tai” in Vietnamese is used to denote to the bud of a mushroom while the word “ear” in English is not used to share it. For example, the name of the main airport is transcribed variously as Suvarnabhumi, Suwannaphum, or Suwunnapoom. It can be seen that the sun lights our earth by day, which can makes people’s life brighter and more joyful. It is a tonal and analytic language, similar to Chinese and Vietnamese. [10] The upper row represents the original text, the next row the Old Chinese pronunciation, the third a transcription of written Thai, and the fourth line English glosses. Basing on that, metaphors relating to upper parts of human body are in the first group which are used to give names to things in the world. Similarly, the British also calls “the private eye” when our eyes has function of observing others secretly to get information. Muong is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Muong ethnic group of Vietnam. Modern "high"-class consonants were the remaining voiceless consonants in Old Thai (voiceless fricatives, voiceless sonorants, voiceless aspirated stops). A letter ญ yo ying also exists, which is used to represent a palatal nasal in words borrowed from Sanskrit and Pali, and is currently pronounced /j/ at the beginning of a syllable but /n/ at the end of a syllable. The only exception to this is เรา (rao), which can be used as singular (informal) or plural, but can also be used in the form of พวกเรา (phuak rao), which is only plural. Traditionally, the high tone was recorded as either [44] or [45]. For over 1,000 years Vietnam was occupied by the Chinese and this had a huge influence on the language. Especially, the word “mÅ©i” in Vietnamese is figuratively used to refer to the forward direction of the attack of the soldiers. Pronouns, when used, are ranked in honorific registers, and may also make a T–V distinction in relation to kinship and social status. Secondly, the metaphors, in most cases, relating to them depend on the similar associations of their semantic features. Instead of a second person pronoun such as "คุณ" (you), it is much more common for unrelated strangers to call each other "พี่ น้อง ลุง ป้า น้า อา ตา ยาย" (brother/sister/aunt/uncle/granny). Proto-Tai also had a glottalized palatal sound, reconstructed as /ʔj/ in Li Fang-Kuei (1977[full citation needed]). It is similar to Yue Yu (越语) spoken by the Gin in southern Guangxi Province in China. กรุงเทพฯ : สำนักพิมพ์มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์. For example, "my mother" is แม่ของผม (mae khong phom, lit: mother of I). But the word “tai” in some cases Vietnamese is used to denote to the two parts on both sides of the mortar in the expression “tai cối xay”. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! They are just planned to offer names to things basing on the experience with the existing vocabulary. If we say “She is a dangerous person”, it is not as forceful to the hearer as we say “She is a snake”. All in all, the discoveries about the similarities and differences in the metaphors relating to upper parts of human body has clearly demonstrated the common and distinguished features in the way in which English and Vietnamese think and view the world surrounding them. Modern "mid"-class consonants were voiceless unaspirated stops or affricates in Old Thai—precisely the class that triggered lowering in original tone 1 but not tones 2 or 3. In the above illustration, the flower is compared to the beauty of woman that will devour like the flower. For instance, the word “capital” in English used to mean the head which is considered as the most critical part on the human body. The difference is also called regional dialects of Vietnamese language including North, Central and South. The vowel nuclei of the Thai language are given in the following table. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Although the overall 44 Thai consonant letters provide 21 sounds in case of initials, the case for finals is different. Learning similar languages is your shortcut to multilingualism! It can be seen that metaphor is used to express ideas sensibly and vividly as it has great expressive power. Harcourt Brace, 1994. Another interesting is that “metaphor is one kind of personification” (Nguyá»…n Văn Chiến, 1992) because everything in the world is not seen in but in the relationship with human beings. So the names of some upper parts of human body are transferred to refer many other things in the real world. It is because Vietnam is the home to 54 ethnic groups. While in English, such classifiers are usually absent ("four chairs") or optional ("two bottles of beer" or "two beers"), a classifier is almost always used in Thai (hence "chair four item" and "beer two bottle"). In contrast, the word “eye” in English is not refer to these cases. Thai also does not have a separate possessive pronoun. Hence, the British calls the sun “the eye of the day”. [23] By adding diacritics to the Latin letters it makes the transcription reversible, making it a true transliteration. As noted above, Thai has several registers, each having certain usages, such as colloquial, formal, literary, and poetic. Besides, it is say that “golden youth”, it means that the adolescent in a man’s life is likewise as valuable as gold. Modern Vietnamese is not related to Chinese. I made acquaintance with your highness the Prince. According to Nguyen Hoa (2004, p.109), there are three main kinds of metaphors namely living metaphors, faded metaphors and dead metaphors. They are not common in everyday language usage. Dominant Languages: Thai and Lao are just two of the many Tai languages in the four-country region of Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam. recent questions. The standard is based on the dialect of the central Thai people, and it is written in the Thai alphabet. This kind of metaphors reflect the imaginative and creative way individuals assess and explain things, which can make their language more expressive and persuasive. The RTGS system is increasingly used in Thailand by central and local governments, especially for road signs. So, the word “mouth” and “miệng”, in both languages, are used to refer to the open part of something especially containers through which we can place things in. vietnamese pronunciation is more similar to catonese and other southern chinese dialects. Practically is proposed to empower learners of English to have an understanding into metaphors relating to upper parts of human body in English and additionally in their mother tongue so they can improve their vocabulary of the language they are learning and decipher them effectively in communication or translate them well into their own mother tongue and vice versa. For the diachronic changes of tone value, please see Pittayaporn (2007). 2003. In each cell below, the first line indicates International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the second indicates the Thai characters in initial position (several letters appearing in the same box have identical pronunciation). Look at the two following examples: In the first example, the word “head” refers to the leader and it is can be understood regarding the similarity of function; the head of human body and the leader of the department carry the mission to control the rest parts of the whole. The phonological structure of … what is on-screen carousel in powerpoint; Lowe’s Labor Day Dale; What is Volcom? According to Vo Dai Quang (2003, p.33), metaphor is “word meaning transference based on similarity between two things as regards function, character, size, shape, age, colour, etc.” As the following example: That is, the word “snake” has negative connotation because it is thought to be very dangerous and poisonous to people. The two lexemes “ear” and “tai” in both languages are used in metaphors to denote to the parts of things which have the similar features. It has a number of influences from other languages and is considered similar to Khmer, Cambodia’s official administrative language. You can view samples of our professional work here. The majority of the population of the country speak this language. The standard language is based on the speech of educated people living in and around Hanoi. [22] Its main drawbacks are that it does not indicate tone or vowel length. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Both English and Vietnamese are based on Latin and use loan words. This has come about for two main reasons: a) Present-day Vietnam was ruled by the Chinese for over 1,000 years; and That is, translators ought to keep away the word-for-word translation while translating these lexemes as they are differently utilized in each language, by people in each nation. There is similarly an alveolar /d/, /t/, /tʰ/ triplet in Thai. I am so pleased! Need to translate "similar to this" to Vietnamese? Beauty is a flower which wrinkles will devour. These metaphors do not make up many in language. Metaphors are diverse in terms of values and functions in language, however, in this study only three basic functions given by a Vietnamese language specialist, Dinh Trong Lac(1994, p.53), are mentioned. "ผม เรา ฉัน ดิฉัน หนู กู ข้า กระผม ข้าพเจ้า กระหม่อม อาตมา กัน ข้าน้อย ข้าพระพุทธเจ้า อั๊ว เขา" all translate to "I", but each expresses a different gender, age, politeness, status, or relationship between speaker and listener. Languages Their influence in trade, especially weaponry, allowed them to establish a community just outside the capital and practice their faith, as well as exposing and converting the locals to Christianity. To understand clearly about the lexemes “nose” and “mÅ©i”, the below table will be illustrate. either /p/, /t/, /k/ or the glottal stop which automatically closes syllables otherwise ending in a short vowel). However, คุณเธอ (khun thoe) is a feminine derogative third person. Finally, some conclusions will be made about what has been analyzed and compared. 4.3. 3. The way metaphors are used is because of people’s life experience, world views and the language users’ culture. Facts about the Language of Vietnam Vietnamese alphabet The Vientamita language shares the same alphabet than the Spanish, the Latin alphabet, unlike its neighbors China, Thailand and Cambodia that use other alphabets.However the Vietnamese has 12 vowels and 17 consonants, as curiosity will say that the Greek and is considered a vowel in Vietnamese. The language didn’t actually gain official status within Vietnam until the end of French colonial rule in 1954. Metaphors can be classified basing on their degree of unexpectedness. Corresponding Thai words are generally spelled หย, which implies an Old Thai pronunciation of /hj/ (or /j̊/), but a few such words are spelled อย, which implies a pronunciation of /ʔj/ and suggests that the glottalization may have persisted through to the early literary period. For instance, in English: “He brought the aircraft’s nose up and made a perfect landing”, whereas in Vietnamese “Anh ta lái mÅ©i máy bay lên và thá»±c hiện việc hạ cánh hoàn hảo” (English-Vietnamese Dictionary, 1993, p.1140). In any case, the concepts expressed through language do not exist in seclusion from each other. In this above example, the word “head” means to the people taking the controlling function as the leader in the department. For example, in English: “Eye of the storm”, “Eye of the wind” while in Vietnamese: “Mắt bão” (English-Vietnamese Dictionary, 1993, p.581). Ancient Chinese texts refer to non-Sinitic languages spoken cross this substantial region and their speakers as "Yue". In Eugene E. Casad and Gary B. Palmer (eds.). However, the language spoken by the Gin is unintelligible to Vietnamese, although they share many similarities. Males usually don't address each other by this pronoun. In teaching English, understanding metaphors relating to some upper parts of human body can help student discover the connection between the metaphorical meaning and the literal meaning of the word to find the new meaning for themselves. So basically Vietnamese has more similarity to the Chinese.. Not French.. Besides this classical case, various papers in historical linguistics have employed Thai for comparative purposes in studying the linguistic landscape of the ancient region of Southern China. Vietnamese is the both the national and the official language of Vietnam. In the early 80's the Zhuang linguist Wei Qingwen using reconstructed Old Chinese for the characters discovered that the resulting vocabulary showed strong resemblance to modern Zhuang. To begin with, “metaphor and simile” are forms of comparison. There is no morphological distinction between adverbs and adjectives. 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